3,442,795. 3,972,983. The raw materials, benzene and ethylene are utilized in a two-step synthesis reaction 2,3. It is also present naturally in crude oil, some natural gas streams, and coal tar. This approach is used as the base case design that is further investigated for process improvements with respect to both economic and environmental feasibility. Thus, in most plants, a corrosion inhibitor (a solution containing one or more amines or other basic nitrogen compounds) is added upstream of the condensation step to control corrosion. A separate water phase forms in the overhead condensing equipment and, although most of the amine injected will partition with the water phase, some will be present in the B/T byproduct. As a result, the entire dehydrogenation effluent typically contains relatively high levels (in excess of 1 ppm by weight) of basic nitrogen impurities. The product is mixed with the reaction effluent from the alkylation reactor and supplied to the distillation train for recovery of the ethylbenzene. The B/T fraction may also be recovered from an ethylbenzene-and-lighter fraction distilled from crude styrene in a preceding distillation column. 12799418, Country of ref document: The molecular sieve may also be composited with zeolitic material such as the zeolitic materials which are disclosed in U.S. Pat.  Typically, a fraction containing both of the benzene and toluene by-products is separated from the dehydrogenation effluent. Benzene and toluene are by-products of the dehydrogenation reaction and so the crude styrene effluent leaving the reaction section of styrene plant comprises benzene, toluene, unreacted EB, styrene monomer, steam and small amounts of heavier aromatic compounds. This report presents the economics of Styrene production from ethane and benzene in the United States, with pure hydrogen as by-product.  In still other embodiments, a suitable zeolite for use in the alkylation catalyst may comprise a large pore molecular sieve having a Constraint Index of less than 2. 12.  The product of the transalkylation reaction comprises ethylbenzene, PEBs and other heavy hydrocarbons normally together with unreacted benzene. 3,702,886 and Re. No. Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 3.It is a highly flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to that of gasoline.This monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is important in the petrochemical industry as an intermediate in the production of styrene, the precursor to polystyrene, a common plastic material. BACKGROUND. No. It’s generally made by using AlCl3 (with HF) or zeolites to convert benzene and ethylene to ethylbenzene, followed by dehydrogenation to styrene. The purported advantages of this process are that the adverse effect of this recycle stream is less on the transalkylation catalyst than on the alkylation catalyst and the transalkylation catalyst typically costs less than, and is cheaper to replace, than the alkylation catalyst. Currently, al- most all ethylbenzene is produced commercially by alkylating benzene with ethylene, primarily via two routes: in the liquid phase with aluminum chloride catalyst (Friedel-Crafts reaction), or in the vapor phase with a fixed bed of either a Lewis acid or a … No. 11. 4. Typically, the molecular sieve employed in the alkylation catalyst is selected from the group consisting of ZSM-3, ZSM-4, ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, ZSM-14, ZSM-18, ZSM-20, ZSM-22, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-48, zeolite beta, zeolite Y, Ultrastable Y (USY), Dealuminized Y (Deal Y), mordenite, MCM-22, PSH-3, SSZ-25, ERB-1, ITQ-1, ITQ-2, MCM-36, MCM-49, MCM-56, and UZM-8. Since the ethylation of benzene is an exothermic reaction, the temperature in the bed rises as the reaction progresses and is measured by the thermocouple. Users are ZSM-22 is described in U.S. Pat. The AIChE online library includes articles, journals, books, blog posts, and more on a variety of topics. Dealuminized Y zeolite (Deal Y) may be prepared by the method found in U.S. Pat. Process design – A production of Styrene from Benzene and Ethylene, Matias Falk Bjerregaard, Jonas Richard Foelsby, Michael Roland Larsen, Maria-Ona Bertran, Department of Process Engineering and department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark email@example.com. The process of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the dehydrogenating is conducted in the presence of steam and the benzene by-product contains water.  A clean, dry benzene feed (>99 % purity) is fed to a fixed-bed alkylation reactor equipped with a multipoint thermocouple so that the internal bed temperature can be measured at various bed depths. The catalysts do not produce byproduct oligomers and can operate at extremely low benzene to ethylene ratios.  According to the present invention, it has now been found that, by passage of at least the benzene by-product of a styrene plant through a dedicated adsorbent bed comprising at least one of acidic clay, alumina, an acidic ion exchange resin and an acidic molecular sieve, poisons, such as basic nitrogen compounds, can be effectively removed from the benzene by-product. Typical alkylation conditions include a temperature of from about 120 to 300 Â°C, preferably, a temperature of from about 150 to 260 Â°C, a pressure of 689 to 4601 kPa-a, preferably, a pressure of 1500 to 4137 kPa-a, a WHSV of 0.1 to 10 hr"1, preferably 0.2 to 2 hr"1, more preferably 0.5 to 1 hr"1, based on ethylene feed, and a molar ratio of benzene to ethylene from about 1 to about 100, preferably from about 20 to about 80. No. No. 4,234,231. not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information As shown in Figure 1, the percentage temperature rise remains substantially constant after the addition of the treated benzene indicating minimal catalyst aging. (d) recycling the purified benzene by-product to the alkylating (a). Zeolite beta is described in U.S. Pat. The process of claim 11, wherein the zeolite is selected from the group consisting of MCM-22, PSH-3, SSZ-25, ERB-1, ITQ-1, ITQ-2, MCM-36, MCM-49, MCM-56 and UZM- 8. Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, United States, Styrene Production from Benzene and Ethylene Catalyzed by Palladium(II): Enhancement of Selectivity toward Styrene via Temperature-dependent Vinyl Ester Consumption. The transalkylation reaction generally take place under at least partially in liquid phase conditions, including a temperature of from about 100 to about 300 Â°C, a pressure of 696 to 4137 kPa-a, a WHSV based on the weight of the polyalkylated aromatic compound(s) feed to the transalkylation reaction of from about 0.5 to about 100 hr"1 Rare earth exchanged Y (REY) is described in U.S. Pat. Suitable large pore molecular sieves include zeolite beta, zeolite Y, Ultrastable Y (USY), Dealuminized Y (Deal Y), mordenite, ZSM-3, ZSM-4, ZSM-18, a MCM-22 family material, and ZSM-20. No. No.  Generally, the alkylating (a) is conducted in the presence of a molecular sieve catalyst and the purified benzene by-product is recycled to the alkylating step. The AIChE Academy provides online courses, webinars and more to aid in your professional development. In this poster, the task-based method for achieving a sustainable process design will be presented through the application of the design of a more sustainable process for the production of styrene. In either configuration, water, C02, and any light nitrogen- containing compounds present in the crude styrene effluent will distill with the B/T fraction, and a portion of these compounds will be present in B/T byproduct. No. The first reactor outlet consists of ethylbenzene and diethyl benzene, which is separated using a distillation column. To maximize EB formation, the light PEBs (DEBs and TEBs) are usually transalkylated with benzene, again over a molecular sieve catalyst to form more EB. At least part of the benzene by-product is passed through a bed of an adsorbent comprising at least one of an acidic clay, alumina, an acidic ion exchange resin and an acidic molecular sieve to remove basic nitrogenous impurities therefrom and produce a purified benzene by-product, which is then recycled to the alkylation step. Carvalho, A., Matos, H. A., & Gani, R. (2013). The process of any preceding claim, wherein a fraction containing both of the benzene and toluene by-products is separated from the dehydrogenation effluent. The resultant purified benzene stream has a sufficiently low concentration of (typically less than 50 ppbw) of basic nitrogen compounds that the stream can be advantageously recycled to the EB alkylation and/or transalkylation reactor.
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