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Several fungicides can be used to combat the disease, including Bordeaux mixture and other copper-based products (the University of California considers these organic treatments), ziram, chlorothalonil, and dodine. Blood meal, bone meal, and calcium ammonium nitrate are suitable fertilizers. The scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia (modern-day Iran). The Li-chi (Han period) reported that the emperor went to the funeral of a minister escorted by a sorcerer carrying a peachwood wand to keep bad influences away. �_}��N�a�+?�#���k�5�ɗ��zBK�t��N{�]���{��֌��_�9L�����s+��{�$�Q�����3�(���*�e�S�ϺgA���7��8/o[]�PI)�U�x��!X�'G����/����5�>���'��$��=5K�|��C�R8�h"z�G������Y���� )��s;�&w%������v�^�(.�NԊl�f+����m�bwע��>E�0u}��j�ZQ�[ T�Yi+}'�LV��4��E���X8����� A genetic variant of common peaches, the nectarine was most likely domesticated in China more than 4,000 years ago, and nectarine and peach trees are virtually indistinguishable. Major historical bottlenecks were found, one related to the putative original domestication that is supposed to have taken place in China about 4,000–5,000 years ago, the second is related to the western germplasm and is due to the early dissemination of the peach in Europe from China and the more recent breeding activities in the United States and Europe. Common rootstocks are 'Lovell Peach', 'Nemaguard Peach', Prunus besseyi, and 'Citation'. Another climate constraint is spring frost. [41] The fruit is susceptible to brown rot or a dark reddish spot. 39 0 obj <> endobj In addition, 27,852 protein-coding genes and 28,689 protein-coding transcripts were predicted. The book records the incident when courtier Mizi Xia bit into an especially delicious peach and gave the remainder to his lover, Duke Ling of Wei, as a gift so that he could taste it, as well. %*��o��q�n�f5}o@s:��G�q����n8CEt�� *���{7�L�F��r�n�mH�쏔���&j�'fp�(��R��m�7����Ҙ���c%��`�2��0x�yp�&ի���?���^�@�G����C%��~��W�M�X*�{2�7�fq�#��L���fi�7��ۅ�f��_��� >dd��ZN��5���f�����ɿ6X��^�8p7EΥ��Q The flowers on a peach tree are typically thinned out because if the full number of peaches mature on a branch, they are undersized and lack flavor. Fresh peaches are easily bruised, so do not store well. If you're a big fan of peaches and nectarines, this news was made for you. These characteristics ease shipping and supermarket sales by improving eye appeal. You can now purchase a hybrid of summer's top stone fruits in one juicy bite: the peacharine. endstream endobj 40 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(w��? Some cultivars are partially freestone and clingstone, so are called semifree. So is it worth the price tag? The tree is also a host plant for such species as the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), the unmonsuzume (Callambulyx tatarinovii), the promethea silkmoth (Callosamia promethea), the orange oakleaf (Kallima inachus), Langia zenzeroides, the speckled emperor (Gynanisa maja) or the brown playboy (Deudorix antalus). [38] The rootstock provides hardiness and budding is done to improve predictability of the fruit quality. [55][56] Scholars suggest that many compositions are symbolic, some an effort to introduce realism. [3] It bears edible juicy fruits with various characteristics, most called peaches and others (the glossy-skinned varieties), nectarines. [7], Prunus persica grows up to 7 m (23 ft) tall and wide, but when pruned properly, trees are usually 3–4 m (10–13 ft) tall and wide. A nectacotum is a hybrid variety of apricot, plum, and nectarine. Peaches are planted in early winter. [48] Peach wood was also used for the earliest known door gods during the Han. endstream endobj 44 0 obj <>stream 0 However, a fruit farm in rural Fukushima, Koji grew a much sweeter peach, with a Brix score of 32°. For other uses, see. Occasionally when peach trees are crossed or even self pollinated they will pro- duce some fruit whose seeds will grow into … Both colors often have some red on their skins. During quiescence, buds break and grow when sufficient warm weather favorable to growth is accumulated. 4���i�f�*�qI�S��Cc'G�w;�9@�6+"�|��Bʹ������.�螦�g��x%PFo��{��3*W�d}��^������^@Qj ,abq1Hb�[��,��5m?��h������N�o�3Ju�zc)� nucipersica (or var. Most cultivars require 500 hours of chilling around 0 to 10 °C (32 to 50 °F). ���dk���V`y{�6Pѧr�� �.�6 P�.Q��:S-�t�^{�j;��#�y�d궩{:�䅇�~�K����4�6�6�]� )vԛuG5�(�l�����U�xho��p~3��.֓����c�\���a� �E+�g�G(V��(�)'�l��-���$evv�v��]8>g���5- ]l����Ή�kǢ�G2�j�xPI�$$|�7�/tf �JJu^ ���^�[-���ڷ�6��Q�F�D��0sV��ع|�-����K*��߮��{0[W��N��_�ɿ�Rj�q�C�o�h�c��r�=[�p��+3�Ͽ�����%��?��ya���N~��o'��Q��,o�h��=��O�J6����=y@�j�U�NB�u��vb/�ɧP�ŮA �3�a27�����Z� AH��jVg?�H�U�xz:�ʘ� [65], The phytochemical amygdalin – a cyanogenic glycoside present in peach seeds, skin, and pulp[66] – is toxic if consumed in large doses. The protagonists of The Tale of Kieu fell in love by a peach tree, and in Vietnam, the blossoming peach flower is the signal of spring. These bottlenecks highlighted the substantial reduction of genetic diversity associated with domestication and breeding activities. Peach trees are prone to a disease called leaf curl, which usually does not directly affect the fruit, but does reduce the crop yield by partially defoliating the tree. The first pest to attack the tree early in the year when other food is scarce is the earwig (Forficula auricularia) which feeds on blossoms and young leaves at night, preventing fruiting and weakening newly planted trees. Low-acid, white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China, Japan, and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have historically favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars. The fruit flesh may be creamy white to deep yellow, to dark red; the hue and shade of the color depend on the cultivar. [49] Writes the author, further: Another aid in fighting evil spirits were peach-wood wands. Another author writes: The Chinese also considered peach wood (t'ao-fu) protective against evil spirits, who held the peach in awe. The U.S. state of Georgia is known as the "Peach State" due to its significant production of peaches as early as 1571,[46] with exports to other states occurring around 1858. The peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and eventually made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. Degrees Brix measures the sugar content of the fruit, and is usually between 11 and 15 for a typical peach from a supermarket.[54]. Pluot (Plum and Apricot): This later generation cross between the plum (70%) and apricot (30%) has … Peaches are not only a popular fruit, but also are symbolic in many cultural traditions, such as in art, paintings, and folk tales such as Peaches of Immortality. The various heirloom varieties including the 'Indian Peach', or 'Indian Blood Peach', which ripens in the latter part of the summer, and can have color ranging from red and white, to purple.[9]. Since that time, peachwood wands have remained an important means of exorcism in China. [49], Peach kernels (桃仁 táo rén) are a common ingredient used in traditional Chinese medicine to dispel blood stasis, counter inflammation, and reduce allergies. Horticulturist George Minifie supposedly brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his estate of Buckland in Virginia. When Georgia reached peak production in the 1920s, elaborate festivals celebrated the fruit. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary or paired, 2.5–3 cm diameter, pink, with five petals. A nectarine is not a hybrid of anything - it is merely a smooth-skinned peach. During the growth season, they need a regular and reliable supply of water, with higher amounts just before harvest.[39]. [15], In India, the peach first appeared by about 1700 BC, during the Harappan period. During the chilling period, key chemical reactions occur, but the plant appears dormant. Climates with significant winter rainfall at temperatures below 16 °C (61 °F) are also unsuitable for peach cultivation, as the rain promotes peach leaf curl, which is the most serious fungal disease for peaches. The fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a skin that is either velvety (peaches) or smooth (nectarines) in different cultivars. They've been cultivated as long as furry peaches. A nectarine (Prunus persica) is a fuzzless variety of peach. [5][6], In 2018, China produced 62% of the world total of peaches and nectarines. 60 0 obj <>/Encrypt 40 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<15E935BD285CF445A84BA65AF660FB93><6967A4A0E1F5BC4E891451D8C9AE4474>]/Index[39 44]/Info 38 0 R/Length 101/Prev 169252/Root 41 0 R/Size 83/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream The larvae of such moth species as the peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa), the yellow peach moth (Conogethes punctiferalis), the well-marked cutworm (Abagrotis orbis), Lyonetia prunifoliella, Phyllonorycter hostis, the fruit tree borer (Maroga melanostigma), Parornix anguliferella, Parornix finitimella, Caloptilia zachrysa, Phyllonorycter crataegella, Trifurcula sinica, Suzuki's promolactis moth (Promalactis suzukiella), the white-spotted tussock moth (Orgyia thyellina), the apple leafroller (Archips termias), the catapult moth (Serrodes partita), the wood groundling (Parachronistis albiceps) or the omnivorous leafroller (Platynota stultana) are reported to feed on P. persica. The single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped, around 1.3–2 cm long, and surrounded by a wood-like husk. [15] Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early first millennium BC. XRY�01����|�ا�]L[��FY�� b�}���(pxbI�%��[�z�ГB�Ҕ �ӱ_+=/�&j�ۗ��ZK�f�j��b8��7�s����1]��B�-�1M$|��@VP�d���6�:~�g��Ȱ7g[��t�mpjg����jң��Ԏj����C e��k�}W���s�����S��;���LW}����;��@Q�9��}�D�玷p�������Nd���uV����W�AA��0}#�Qt�+���=��&��g��Jm����� "D���Aخ_w;��.�U���y��U፻��fZ>stream By 2017, Georgia's production represented 3–5% of the U.S. The term "bitten peach", first used by Legalist philosopher Han Fei in his work Han Feizi, became a byword for homosexuality. The peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. endstream endobj startxref [23], Peaches grow in a fairly limited range in dry, continental or temperate climates, since the trees have a chilling requirement that tropical or subtropical areas generally do not satisfy except at high altitudes (for example in certain areas of Ecuador, Colombia, Ethiopia, India, and Nepal). The flesh is very delicate and easily bruised in some cultivars, but is fairly firm in some commercial varieties, especially when green. Peach trees need full sun, and a layout that allows good natural air flow to assist the thermal environment for the tree. Until recently, cultivation was believed to have started around 2000 BC. [8] The leaves are lanceolate, 7–16 cm (3–6 1⁄2 in) long, 2–3 cm (3⁄4–1 1⁄4 in) broad, and pinnately veined. Peach blossoms are highly prized in Chinese culture. The Koanga Institute lists varieties that ripen in the Southern Hemisphere in February and March.

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